Growing up in Krakow

Observing Jewish Laws and Customs

"Jewish life was the center."

"I was born on December 20, 1922 in the city of Krakow, Poland. My house was a house of [an] observant family. My father was a kosher butcher. The laws of the Bible were observed strictly... I always wore a head covering. I attended the Jewish day school ‘til about the 7th grade. For the 8th grade I went to a public school. So Jewish life was the center. That was it, okay. I had non-Jewish friends because we lived in a non-Jewish neighborhood, but Jewish laws and Jewish customs were central to our life."