“I can remember Christmas presents. And I probably was 5 or 6 years old. My sister [Carolyn Wallace]. And see [my father] sitting in his recliner. My mother [Mary Wallace] would fix breakfast. And just the four of us sharing Christmas together is…

"They had applied for immigration, and they had quite a low quota number, but it seemed like people that had higher quota numbers were being called to immigrate, and they weren’t. And eventually my grandmother [father's mother] figured out that…

"We moved to Queens for a while, and then in 1954 my brother was born."My Aunt Edie and her three daughters lived in Brooklyn with my uncle. They lived in the bottom part of a two-storey house, and on the top were my uncle’s parents, Mr. and Mrs.…

"My aunt got married in ‘45-- to my uncle, and they went to a synagogue that was a German refugee synagogue, and there was a man that kept staring at them during the service-- and this was my Aunt Hiddie and my mother-- and eventually he approached…

"Well, [my Aunt Edie] said there were a lot of young people, and she said that they had parties every night. This was a luxury liner. And it was taken over by the Nazis, so they flew the Nazi flag. They had a big picture of Hitler in the dining room,…

"Eventually a group of compassionate Jewish citizens from the town of Harrogate, which is in the northeast corner of England came, and they were willing to take 25-30 young Jewish girls-- religious girls-- back to their community with them. And so,…

"Well, they were assigned to a cabin, and like I said, there were 1000 children on this transport. There were already children that were there from other countries. And what they were told to do was to make themselves as much at home as they could,…

"[Ruth and Hilde] eventually got to the hook of Holland, in Rotterdam, and they boarded a ship that took them across the English Channel and on to Dovercourt, England, and that was a summer camp with cabins, but they weren’t heated. And the…

"And then they went on with 1000 children on that transport. They had a very harrowing experience. And they got to the border of Holland and Germany. And the soldiers there-- the German soldiers-- they boarded the train. And they harassed the…

"[Ruth] got home [from her trip to Oldenburg], and the first thing she noticed-- there were swastikas all over her house. And it had been a beautiful home, and it was prominently centered in the middle of town, and then she noticed that all the…