"It was subtle but it was there. In 1935, when President Piłsudski died, and the right wing party took over, there were some, laws propagated that were definitely anti-Semitic, like ritual slaughter forbidden. What I recall that was really painful is one time seeing my father outside with a brush trying to get graffiti off our house. And on that graffiti was 'Precz z Zydami,' 'Out with the Jews.' And it was especially painful for my father because in 1920, when Poland was fighting for its independence, my father joined after fighting in the First World War. He joined the Polish Army to fight for Polish independence. And it was extremely painful for him to see this on our home."