"I think [my grandmother] made a lot of friends at the synagogue—at Beth Jacob. She did stay in touch with her family in Europe. She had some sisters who actually left Germany before the war. They lived in the Paris area. She did go back to Germany…

"They were notified by the same agency that helped them resettle. When word came back to the Americans in Berlin, a communication was sent out to my grandfather, and my father flew up to New York to meet his mother. I know that while they were in…

"They went through what was then, at least in the state of Georgia, “Americanism” classes to prepare them, along with some other people that had also come from Germany as well, to prepare them for citizenship. Both my grandfather, my father, and…

"[My grandfather, father, and aunt] tried to get help from the American authorities, but the Americans had no knowledge about what was happening either, and if they did, they probably even couldn’t say because the relationship between the Americans…

"They were not able to move back into the former home, but they moved into an apartment near where they had lived. I believe the original structure was bombed. And I know that they were able to collect some of their original belongings they had left…

"I don’t know if he was able to be in contact—if my grandfather was able to be in contact with his brother in Shanghai. They never really said. When I spoke with Kurt’s sons, I never really got a sense that they stayed in contact. Now, Kurt’s…

"At the end of the war, [my father and his family] were actually still living in what would be considered the Western sector in the U.S. administered part of Berlin. My father’s comment to me—The only comment was that I can recall, after the…

"My father tells stories of how occasionally he would leave the city and go to a farm area. And someone would allow him to work for them in exchange for food. And he would sleep in the barn. And he said that happened to him a couple of times. But he…

"Right. [My grandfather Alexander] had a sister Frieda, a brother Gustav, and another sister Gertrude. In 1942-1943 they were all taken. And nobody really knows their fate. They were taken and never seen again. And also his mother, Johanna Jacobi,…

"I believe [my father's family] thought that this would all pass, you know. Because there had been anti-Semitism before. It was kind of underlying in the culture, but no one ever thought that this would really come to pass. And their opportunity to…