"And there in 1941, we learned that they’re gonna create a ghetto in Tarnow. So we left... the town of Tarnow, and went to a smaller community called Zawichost. And from there we had to leave because my father was caught butchering, and there was a…

"Well, we stayed in Krakow from the outbreak of the war. We stayed with our aunt in my grandparents’ apartment. And in 1940, when the rumors started that the ghetto [is going to be created] in Krakow. We --since we were not citizens of Krakow –we…

"It's almost impossible to describe. If there ever was a hell on earth this was it. There were a few narrow streets in that ghetto, thousands of people were brought in from other surrounding towns and villages, Typhus was raging-- my brother had…

"Well, the first week that they were there, they erected eight gallows in the city center and just randomly selected eight Jews and hanged them. They came to the Jewish synagogue and trashed it, burned the Torah scrolls and the prayer books, and the…