"Now, after the war’s over, and wars have a way of ending, I came back to school, and I went to graduate school at T—at Syracuse, Syracuse University. And I flew with the New York Air National Guard as a radar observer, and that was a completely…

"Were there dangers? Flying is risky. It’s always risky. We had a saying that…there were old pilots and there were bold pilots, so you have to be careful. They says, there were never any old, bold pilots. If you’re too bold, you never get…

"I just about knew it was gonna happen. I was the right age. I was about…18, 19 at that time, and…I felt I was gonna go. I did learn, however, that if you volunteer, sometime you can pick the service that you want, and when I got to…

"After high school in Henry County, I learned the Tuskegee would offer people jobs. They would give ’em work scholarships, and if you would come to Tuskegee and wan—and you were willing to work, you could just about work your way through school.…

"We didn’t have a high school, we had tenth grade, and when you finished the tenth grade, that was the end of the line. Now the other school system across town where I couldn’t go, of course they had high school. So at the end of tenth grade, I…

"Well, I went to Raleigh, and they interviewed me. And then I got a job. And I went to Washington and I took the exam until I was too dumb to learn. But they thought I was smart. And they put me out to work. And I did like math problems. My problem…

"Well, my daddy helped the math teacher in high school, because he did not know math. He was a smart man but didn't know math. And he'd tell my brother, 'take this home and get your daddy to work it and bring it back in the morning,' so my daddy…

"I went to Murphy High School. That’s a junior school. And then I went to Tech High School, and then I went to Georgia Tech...I never completed. I was working while I was going to Tech. I went to night school. And the war came along in 1942. They…

"In 1996, I joined the fledgling museum in New York, the Jewish Heritage museum, the living memorial to the Holocaust, which opened up in 1997. And there, you know, there was a forum for speaking and sharing your experiences. We had thousands of…

"In 1968, I think, we moved to Long Island. I had friends in the survivors’ community. We used to get together. Why? Because we knew each other. We didn’t need to tell each other what we went through. We just, through a word, a name, a place, and…