"I don’t know if he was able to be in contact—if my grandfather was able to be in contact with his brother in Shanghai. They never really said. When I spoke with Kurt’s sons, I never really got a sense that they stayed in contact. Now, Kurt’s…

"He was born in a small town in what was then Prussia called Schonlanke. It’s now Trscianka in Poland. I don’t know that much about what his family life was about. I know that he had an older brother named Kurt, a number of brothers and sisters,…

"She was born in 1927 in London, in Stoke Newington, and, you know, it was between the two wars, and times were tough. And they lived in a multilevel series of flats in Stoke Newington. In fact, the same apartment that she lived in, my grandparents…

"We went into hiding in our own apartment. The windows had been darkened; blankets and sheets had been shoved under the door so no sound would come out. That is where I spent the next sixteen months of my life, in that apartment building. My mother…

“Well my parents were Orthodox Jews. They were very observant. My mother lit candles every Friday night. Holidays were observed. When I was born it was against the law to have Jewish ceremonies, so my father smuggled in the mohel, the one who does…

"When my mother and I got to the Romanian-Hungarian border and these people saw that I was an eight-year-old boy they panicked. They were afraid that I would make a noise and give them away. In addition to what my father had paid them-- there was…

“The earliest memories were good ones. Even though Romania was part of the allies of Nazi Germany, and they followed the Nuremburg laws, up until December 1942, when my father was arrested, we had a fairly decent life. Of course they had…