"I believe [my father's family] thought that this would all pass, you know. Because there had been anti-Semitism before. It was kind of underlying in the culture, but no one ever thought that this would really come to pass. And their opportunity to…

"It was subtle but it was there. In 1935, when President Piłsudski died, and the right wing party took over, there were some, laws propagated that were definitely anti-Semitic, like ritual slaughter forbidden. What I recall that was really painful…