"The biggest memory I have-- we had an American-- it wasn't a base. It was a huge tent in the green area near my house, and there was a bunch of Americans lived there. We used to go up there and say, “Got any gum, chum?” Because we couldn't get…

I had a green ration book because of my age. My brother had the blue, and my mom and dad had white ones. And I was able to get orange juice on mine, and we could get an egg once a week, and meat was almost inaccessible. My dad would buy some black…

We had black-out curtains. And my dad was what they called an air raid warden. He, and another neighbor, they would walk the streets at night to make sure no lights were showing through the windows, and they would take it turns with different…

"The Final Solution was getting closer. Some of their Jewish friends needed to be in Sweden, and they were also in this rowing club, so...when you’re young, and the dopamine hasn’t set in in the mid-brain, to fool the Gestapo at the pier would…

"And then one morning, my dad is on his way home, and he has a little trailer on his bicycle with the seventeen rifles and ammunitions and whatnot, So he sees the Gestapo up on the bridge. And he thought, 'Well, if I turn around, they’ll know I…

"About two years [after we arrived in the United States], my father had an opportunity to buy a dress-making factory, and he had some money and my mother had some money, and they invested it with another partner in this dress company and he bought…

"My grandmother on my father’s side, she was living in Paris. She wasn’t able to come with us at all, and she was hidden—or not hidden—but she lived in a “senior citizens”—we’d call it—home. And eventually she came out and joined…

"They [my grandparents] went across the Pyrenees, and they ended up in, I believe, Madrid, one of those cities—[Spain] being a neutral country, so-called. And then eventually they got to Portugal, and they ended up getting a ship to New York at…

"They [my grandparents] went through Marseilles and there was a very outstanding American council called Varian Fry, and I’m convinced that they were helped by that person because he helped a lot of people escape. And he was the council in…

"When the Nazis took over, for about two years, there were two zones of France: one was the Occupied Zone, which included Paris and most of the Coast, and the other part was the Southeast part and the Riviera and the Mediterranean Coast, which was…