"I went to Murphy High School. That’s a junior school. And then I went to Tech High School, and then I went to Georgia Tech...I never completed. I was working while I was going to Tech. I went to night school. And the war came along in 1942. They…

"And there in 1941, we learned that they’re gonna create a ghetto in Tarnow. So we left... the town of Tarnow, and went to a smaller community called Zawichost. And from there we had to leave because my father was caught butchering, and there was a…

"Well, we stayed in Krakow from the outbreak of the war. We stayed with our aunt in my grandparents’ apartment. And in 1940, when the rumors started that the ghetto [is going to be created] in Krakow. We --since we were not citizens of Krakow –we…

"December 4, the issue was ordered that all Jews must assemble in front of the great synagogue to be inoculated against typhus. It was raging in that part of the world, but some of the people, like my father, were skeptical. Why would the Germans…

"Well, the first week that they were there, they erected eight gallows in the city center and just randomly selected eight Jews and hanged them. They came to the Jewish synagogue and trashed it, burned the Torah scrolls and the prayer books, and the…

"We were in Sunday school class and someone came in and said someone attacked Pearl Harbor and I thought, I don’t know Pearl Harbor. It was a Caucasian Sunday school teacher and we were supposed to go to have a basketball outing, you know, and so…

“Well my parents were Orthodox Jews. They were very observant. My mother lit candles every Friday night. Holidays were observed. When I was born it was against the law to have Jewish ceremonies, so my father smuggled in the mohel, the one who does…

“The earliest memories were good ones. Even though Romania was part of the allies of Nazi Germany, and they followed the Nuremburg laws, up until December 1942, when my father was arrested, we had a fairly decent life. Of course they had…

"when we went to England, the only thing we could take with us was the equivalent of about ten dollars each, one ring and one watch…each. If we had—I mean, we were children. I had—I think—I didn’t have no rings, but I had a watch. So we…

"We were able to leave there one year later, in April 1940, because our visa became valid, and were able to come to America and started life from the beginning in America.” “When he first came to America, we came across New York, and we were…