Well...I don’t know totally many details, but being a boy scout in Copenhagen where, you know, all that information was brewing probably got them involved fairly early on because one of their leaders was, you know, you know, very influenced and…

So tell me about the significance of that date, April 9th, 1940. Is that a date that is still regarded? Toben: Oh, very much. My parents both, individually, remembers waking up, getting ready to go to school, and hearing all the noise of the…

"About two years [after we arrived in the United States], my father had an opportunity to buy a dress-making factory, and he had some money and my mother had some money, and they invested it with another partner in this dress company and he bought…

"My grandmother on my father’s side, she was living in Paris. She wasn’t able to come with us at all, and she was hidden—or not hidden—but she lived in a...“senior citizens”—we’d call it—home. And she eventually she came out and…

"Well, they left—they stayed in France at the time, but then when...when the Nazis took over, the Germans took over...for a—for about two years, there were two zones of France: one was the Occupied Zone, which included Paris and most of the…

"My mother's family, her brothers, and her parents were taken to outside of Kiev at Babi Yar-- where they were made to dig their own graves. And were lined up and shot in the back of the head. Both of her sisters survived the Holocaust because…

"[The German invasion] forced most of the young Jews into hiding, into groups of resistance fighters living in the caves. Living in the forest. Coming out at night trying to get food. Or do whatever damage they could to the Germans. The Nazis. …

"I was born April 24, 1941. In a small town called Kremenchug. About fifty miles east of Kiev in the Ukraine. My mother was born in Kremenchug, Russia in the Ukraine. 1916. She was one of six children. She had two sisters and three…

"Finally we went out to the aviation field, where a Civil Aeronautics unit for the teaching of colored pilots is in full swing. They have advanced training here, and some of the students went up and did acrobatic flying for us. These boys are good…

"Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy, the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan... The people of the United States have already formed their…