"I received a scholarship from the Callaway Foundation. We called them work scholarships. If you qualified for the scholarship and received the scholarship, you would also receive a job so that when you were not in school, you could work three months…

"Well, it just absolutely scared me to death because the day it came over the radio, I was taking a nap and—curled up in my bed—and my parents had gone out for a walk, and I couldn’t tell anybody. So as soon as they got home, why, I said,…

"After high school in Henry County, I learned the Tuskegee would offer people jobs. They would give ’em work scholarships, and if you would come to Tuskegee and wan—and you were willing to work, you could just about work your way through school.…

"We didn’t have a high school, we had tenth grade, and when you finished the tenth grade, that was the end of the line. Now the other school system across town where I couldn’t go, of course they had high school. So at the end of tenth grade, I…

"Well, I went to Raleigh, and they interviewed me. And then I got a job. And I went to Washington and I took the exam until I was too dumb to learn. But they thought I was smart. And they put me out to work. And I did like math problems. My problem…

"Well, my daddy helped the math teacher in high school, because he did not know math. He was a smart man but didn't know math. And he'd tell my brother, 'take this home and get your daddy to work it and bring it back in the morning,' so my daddy…

"I was at Tenasin’s drive-in with a bunch of buddies. And I had a bunch of half bottles of whiskey in the trunk of the car. And we all got pretty well soused... We thought the world’s coming to an end. We didn’t know what to think. We knew…

"I went to Murphy High School. That’s a junior school. And then I went to Tech High School, and then I went to Georgia Tech...I never completed. I was working while I was going to Tech. I went to night school. And the war came along in 1942. They…

"And there in 1941, we learned that they’re gonna create a ghetto in Tarnow. So we left... the town of Tarnow, and went to a smaller community called Zawichost. And from there we had to leave because my father was caught butchering, and there was a…

"Well, we stayed in Krakow from the outbreak of the war. We stayed with our aunt in my grandparents’ apartment. And in 1940, when the rumors started that the ghetto [is going to be created] in Krakow. We --since we were not citizens of Krakow –we…